Wheat production is a very politically sensitive issue around the world but particularly in Egypt where bread is the staple diet. Average consumption of wheat and wheat products is about 200 kilograms (kg) per capita per year in Egypt, one of the highest levels in the world.
Wheat occupies about 32.6 percent of the total winter land area and is mostly used to make bread, a very important component of the Egyptian diet. Due to the importance of bread in Egypt and it is a role in stimulating of political unrest, Egyptian government works hardly with National, International Organizations, Agriculture Associations and Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) to improve wheat production through increasing the productivity per unit area together with the expanding the cultivated area in newly reclaimed lands is the most important national target.
However, the lack of agriculture labor in the reclaimed areas led to increase the production cost, therefore it was important to improve farmers’ knowledge and skills in the management of wheat, introducing highly selected varieties through genetic engineer modification and new mechanization represent an important factor to reduce the cost and increase productivity.